Contested Treaty of Benjamin Henry Harrison. Tasked by President Jefferson to further American claims, Harrison forces a dubious treaty upon members of the Sauk tribe who are not authorized to make agreements for their community.
General Gains and Black Hawk. Black Hawk, the daughter of Mat-ta-tas and others return to Saukenuk (today’s Rock Island, Illinois) and voice their opposition to being removed from their land and cornfields. General Gaines promises use of military force if they do not cross the Mississippi.
General Winfield Scott and General Atkinson pursue Black Hawk and his ‘British Band’ of followers. Black Hawk returns with perhaps 1,200 followers; including elders, women and children. Despite attempts to surrender, to American troops, hundreds of Native Americans are killed by American militia and regular military forces.
USS Black Hawk. The US Navy renames a ship in honor of Black Hawk. The vessel serves in the Mississippi Squadron against Confederate forces.
Black Hawk Statue Erected. The first public commemoration in honor of Black Hawk, is unveiled in Rock Island, Il. The statue now resides in front of the John Hauberg Indian Museum.
Wisconsin Legislature formally apologizes to the Meskwaki and Sauk.. “Whereas Black Hawk responded to the suffering of his people by leading them back across the Mississippi in 1832 in the hopes of planting crops and restoring their villages. Whereas this affair was tragically concluded on August 1-2 1832 when hundreds of unarmed men and women, children and elders were killed while crossing the Mississippi. ….. Resolved by the assembly, that the members of the Wisconsin state assembly express their regret and sorrow for the conduct of territorial militia….”
Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri
Sac and Fox Nation in Stroud, Oklahoma.
Meskwaki Nation and Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi In Iowa.
Native Land Digital - Map Your Treaty
Interested in learning about the original communities near your home? Plug your zip code into the interactive map in the link below. Visit this digital map project, led by Native Land Digital, whose mission is to create and foster conversations about the history of colonialism, Indigenous ways of knowing, and settler-Indigenous relations, through educational resources such as our map and Territory Acknowledgement Guide.
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